Меѓународно научно списание

Печатено издание: ISSN 0585-9069
Онлајн издание: ISSN 1857-9507


International Scientific Journal

Print publication: ISSN 0585-9069
Online publication: ISSN 1857-9507

Шумарски преглед, год. 46 (Печатено издание)

Forest Review, Vol. 46 (Print publication)

2015 г., год. 46 (печатено издание) | Year 2015. Vol. 46 (print publication) 80 години од раѓањето на проф. д-р Радослав Ризовски / 80 Years of Prof. Dr.sc Radoslav Rizovski's Birth

Issue Articles

The life and work of Prof. Dr. Radoslav Rizovski (16.IX 1935 – 20.VII 2008)
80 years since the birth of and over 40 years of educational and scientific activity

Authors: Dejan Mandžukovski

UDC: 929Rizovski,R

Bibliography (monograph article)



Professor Radoslav Rizovski is one of the remarkable figures who made a mark in vegetation science in Macedonia. As a tireless researcher, he created invaluable tuition that will represent basis for future generations to learn from it but also to upgrade it. He has been active in nature conservation on the ground of the former Yugoslavia, especially in Macedonia. He has published 50 scientific papers, several working papers relating to vegetation mapping of part of Macedonia, and several monographs. This year marks 80 years since his birth and 40 years of teaching and research, and for that purpose this paper is dedicated to.

Keywords: Radoslav Rizovski, vegetation science, nature protection.

A phytocoenological study of forests of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak (Quercetum frainetto-Cerridis /Rudski 1949/ Trinajstić et al. 1996) on the northwest border of arrival (Nature park Papuk, Croatia)

Authors: Dario Baričević, Joso Vukelić, Marko Puača, Irena Šapić

UDC: 630*22:582.632.2(497.5)

Original scientific article



The paper presents phytocoenological research of forests of Hungarian and Turkey oak in the locality of Otmanov Vis within Papuk Nature Park.  These specific and very interesting areas has not so far been included in research of a broader distribution range of the community of Hungarian and Turkey oak and represents a unique feature because of very rare soil type (eutric ranker on trachyandesite). Phytocoenological sampling based on the principles of the Zürich-Montpellier School was performed on five plots. Our own relevés were compared with those from a broader Kutjevo area, Bosnia and Herzegovina and northwestern Serbia. Statistical analysis was accomplished using Syn-tax 2000 software. According to the results, the studied stands belong to the association Quercetum frainetto-cerridis (Rudski 1949) Trinajstić et al. 1996, or more precisely to its subassociation ruscetosum Jovanović et Dunjić 1951. Syntaxonomically, they belong to the alliance Quercion frainetto, order Quercetalia pubescentis, and class Querco-Fagetea. In addition to the characteristic species of the association, the subassociation in the study area is well defined by the following differential species of the subassociation: Cornus mas, Helleborus odorus, Melica uniflora, Teucrium chamaedrys, Ruscus aculeatus, Physospermum cornubiense and Campanula persicifolia. In terms of synecology, it is characterized by its occurrence in the colline belt, at elevations from 260 to 400 m and inclinations from 5 – 40°. As Otmanov Vis is the only area in Croatia where this subassociation is occurs this work also presents the first description of this subassociation in Croatia. The site should be placed under special protection due to exceptional biological diversity and beauty of the landscape. 

Keywords: phytocoenological study, Quercetum frainetto-cerridis, Croatia, ruscetosum, first description.

Plant biodiversity of Sphagnum-dominated mires in Vitosha nature park

Authors: Marius Dimitrov, Rayna Natcheva, Anna Ganeva, Dessislava Gyurova

UDC: 582.323(497.2-751.2)

Original scientific article



Eighty-four Sphagnum-dominated mire complexes on the territory of Vitosha Nature Park were studied. It included spatial inventory as well as full account of plant species and plant community diversity in each mire. The distribution of mires with respect to elevation and exposure was analyzed. We found 121 vascular plant species and 89 bryophytes. This is a substantial biodiversity considering the small total area of this type of habitats in the Park (0.4% of its territory) and their patchiness. We recorded 24 species of conservation importance. The registered phytocoenoses belong to three classes, three orders, five alliances, six plant associations, three subassociations and five plant communities. The major identified threats for Sphagnum-dominated mires were changes in the hydrological regime due to natural drainage and climate change, as well as anthropogenic drainage and water catchment. Other negative impacts are deposition of airborne pollutants, trampling by tourists, wastes, grazing and burning. Our work highlights the role of Vitosha Nature Park for the conservation of Sphagnum-dominated mires in Bulgaria and the importance of proper management for their protection.

Keywords: plant biodiversity, phytocoenoses, diagnostic species, bryophytes, conservation, Bulgaria.

Plant species diversity and invasibility of (peri-)urban forests of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Authors: Lado Kutnar, Klemen Eler

UDC: 630*22(497.4) 

Original scientific article



Vascular plant species were assessed in the (peri-)urban forests of the Ljubljana region. Among the forests investigated were alluvial and riparian forests with high levels of plant species diversity. However, due to the vicinity of urban areas, the human impact on these forests is intense, and they are also highly exposed to the invasion of alien species. Within three forest locations in urban and peri-urban forests in the Ljubljana region, the vascular plant species were recorded, and their cover and origin status were estimated. In total, 161 vascular plant species were recorded at three study sites. Among them, 13 alien species were recognized. The majority of them were declared to be invasive species in Slovenia, which adversely affect the forest habitats and outcompete native plant species, and consequently, decrease the provisioning of some important ecosystem services such as erosion protection, recreation usage, biodiversity hosting, etc. The most abundant invasive species in the studied sites were Solidago gigantea Ait. and Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. The (peri-)urban forests of Ljubljana are under the significant impact of invasive plant species. The dynamics of expansion of invasive species should be carefully monitored.

Keywords: plant species, diversity, invasive species, (peri-)urban forest, Ljubljana.

First records for seven species and one hybrid for the flora of the Republic of Macedonia

Authors: Ljupcho Melovski, Slavco Hristovski

UDC: 581.96(497.7)

Original scientific article



Contribution to the knowledge of distribution ranges of several plant species is presented in this article. The following plant species were recorded in course of the botanical research during last several years and they represent new findings for the flora of the Republic of Macedonia: Polypodium interjectum, Polypodium x mantoniae, Clematis recta, Salix repens subsp. rosmarinifolia, Lathraea rhodopea, Cirsium grecescui, Eleocharis mamillata subsp. austriaca and Arabidopsis arenosa.

Keywords: Macedonia, flora, new records.

Boreo-montane forest phytocoenoses in central Stara Planina Mts.

Authors: Ivailo Nikolov, Marius Dimitrov

UDC: 581.55(497.2-751.2)

Original scientific article



This study deals with the subalpine conifers and related birch forests on the territory of National Park “Central Balkan”in Bulgaria. It is a part of a comprehensive study on the forest vegetation in the Park. 30 relevés were collected during the field research. JUICE, TWINSPAN and STATISTICA were applied for classification and statistical analysis. The studied forests are fragmented and do not form a continuous altitudinal belt within the park. The species composition, ecology and distribution determine their differentiation into four groups of phytocoenoses. Most widespread are the communities dominated by Norway spruce, which combine mesohygrophitic and eutrophic phytocoenoses, forming the timberline. Community of Picea abies and Luzula sylvatica includes woods, tied to acidophilous and relatively less humid and poor soil. Mesophytic and mesotrophic community of Betula pendula develops in areas where the timberline is composed of spruce forests, mostly southward from the main ridge of the mountain. The natural habitat of the Macedonian pine in the study area represents northernmost locality of its natural area of distribution and is the only one in Stara Planina Mts. Two associations were described: Adenostylo alliariae-Pinetum peucis and Ranunculo carthusianae-Piceetum abietis. They include hygromoesophytic and mesotrophic forests, forming some parts of the alpine timberline.

Keywords: subalpine forests, classification of vegetation, diagnostic species, environmental variables, Pinus peuce, phytocoenoses.

Analysis of floristic composition of mountain beech forest on limestone and serpentine in Serbia

Authors: Marijana Novaković-Vuković, Rajko Milošević

UDC: 630*22:582.632.2(497.11-14)

Original scientific article



The paper is floristic composition comparative research of mountain beech forests on serpentine in southwestern Serbia, and beech forests on limestone in eastern Serbia. The analysis showed that there are significant differences in the floristic composition. On the serpentine bedrock a low count of plant species was recorded, Jacquard’s similarity index of studied stands had a very low value. Within phytocoenological relevés made ​​on limestone bedrock, the most typical species of beech forests appear as isolated, while in the beech forests on serpentine, xerophyl species characteristic to the order Erico – Pinetalia  and Quercetalia pubescentis were observedin addition to “fagetal” species. In the spectrum of life forms on both the geological substrate hemicryptophytes dominated, and phanerophytes and nanophanerophytes of serpentinite had the significant presence, as a result of warmer climate in southwestern Serbia. In geofloristic spectrum, a group of submediterranean floral elements, which are connected with Balkan floral elements, is as twice as numerous in the mountain beech forest on serpentine than on limestone, which is another indicator of southwestern Serbia’s exposure to  submediterranean influence.

Keywords: beech, serpentine, limestone, southwest Serbia, eastern Serbia.

Floristic and vegetation diversity in Kongura reserve (South-west Bulgaria)

Authors: Hristo Pedashenko, Kiril Vassilev, Svetlana Bancheva, Malina Delcheva, Vladimir Vladimirov

UDC: 581.55(497.2)

Original scientific article



Kongura reserve is situated in the Bulgarian part of Belasitsa mountain. It occupies an area of 1310.80 ha on slopes with northern, north-eastern and north-western exposition from 430 to 1740 m alt. The reserve was established in 1988 mainly to protect the well preserved Castanea sativa and Fagus sylvatica forests. A total of 300 vascular plant species were identified, more than a quarter of which belong to the families Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae. Among the richest genera are Galium, Campanula, Acer, Hieracium, Lathyrus, Trifolium and Viola, which comprise more than 12% of the total flora of the study area. Five species are of conservation concern and are included in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Bulgaria. Three taxa of these are legally protected by the national Biodiversity Act. Endemism is relatively low (3.3%) since only 10 Balkan endemics have been recorded. Almost the entire territory of the reserve is covered by various forest types. The most widespread vegetation type belongs to Querco-Fagetea class, which is represented by alliance Fagion sylvaticae. The rest of the forest vegetation was classified to alliances Quercion petraeo-cerridis and Carpinion orientalis of Quercetea pubescentis class. Wet woodlands of Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae class (alliance Platanion orientalis) have only limited distribution in the area. Areas covered by shrubs were classified to Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea and Rhamno-Prunetea classes. Although areas dominated by herbs or grasses cover only less than two percent of the reserve’s territory their diversity was classified into four classes: Festuco-Brometea, Juncetea trifidi, Mulgedio-Aconitetea and Galio-Urticetea.

Keywords: Belasitsa Mt., endemics, flora, habitats, conservation.

Juncus filiformis L. (Juncaceae), a new species in the flora of Macedonia

Authors: Aco Teofilovski, Zoran Nikolov, Dejan Mandžukovski

UDC: 582.542.51-196(497.7)

Original scientific article



In this work Juncus filiformis is reported for the first time in the flora of Macedonia. The species was discovered in the subalpine belt of Mt Šar Planina – on Bogovinje Leak coast. Chorological and ecological data regarding the discovered population with additions of a photograph of live specimens, a photograph of fruiting inflorescence of herbarium specimens, and a distribution map are presented. A short discussion of taxonomical position of the species and short description are also given.

Keywords: Juncus filiformis, new, species, flora, Macedonia.

Flora, habitats and vegetation of Chamdzha managed reserve, central Balkan range

Authors: Kiril Vassilev, Anna Gavrilova

UDC: 581.55(497-191.2)

Original scientific article



Chamdzha reserve is a managed reserve, situated on the southern slopes of Central Balkan Range, which occupies an area of 66.4 ha. The aim of this study was to explore floristic, habitat and vegetation diversity of the reserve. Totally the flora is represented by 51 families, 184 genera and 299 vascular plants (without mosses). The richest families are Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae, Boraginaceae and Apiaceae. One hundred and eleven medical plants and 7 species of conservation concern were found (5 Balkan endemics, 3 included in the Red List of Bulgarian vascular plants and in the National Biological Biodiversity Act). Fourteen relevés were collected during 2014 following to the Braun-Blanquet approach. The vegetation diversity is represented by 5 classes (Erico-Pinetea, Querco-Fagetea, Quercetea pubescentis, Koelerio-Corynephoretea and Festuco-Brometea), 4 alliances (Erico-Fraxinion orni, Carpinion orientalis, Carpinion betuli, and Festucion valesiacae), 1 association and 5 communities. Woodland vegetation covers 61.2 ha whereas grassland vegetation includes only 0.15 ha. Natural communities represent 5 habitats protected by Directive 92/43/EEC and the Bulgarian Biodiversity Act.

Keywords: managed reserve, Bulgaria, Stara planina, Erico-Pinetea, Koelerio-Corynephoretea 

Floristic-vegetational variability of the association Epimedio-Carpinetum betuli (Horvat 1938) Borhidi 1963 in the north of Croatia

Authors: Joso Vukelić, Irena Šapić, Dario Baričević

UDC: 630*:582.632.2(497.5-17)

Original scientific article



The paper analyzes 246 phytocoenological relevés of the association EpimedioCarpinetum betuli (I. Horvat 1938) Borhidi 1963 in northern Croatia using the standard principles of the Central European Phytocoenological School [5] and applying recent statistical methods [10, 6, 30]. The association is divided into six subassociations with sociologically closely affiliated differential species. The first part of the research implies formalized classification to analyze and correct the selection of diagnostic and differential species in traditional subassociations formed on the basis of previous studies. The second part uses a statistical method to form three clusters, determine their differential species and compare them with the earlier classification of the association. The results of the analysis have revealed a relatively low floristic variability, whereas structural classification has confirmed a smaller number of the described associations. In addition to providing an objective classification of the community EpimedioCarpinetum, the study will also contribute to future analyses of Illyrian oak-hornbeam forests in their distribution range, as well as to the synthesis of the Carpinetum communities of Europe. 

Keywords: Epimedio-Carpinetum betuli, northern Croatia, statistical analysis, differential species.